Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory impairments, has emerged as a serious threat to human health worldwide. Currently, the approved medicines for AD fail to provide a definitive cure, while concurrently exhibiting toxic side effects. Compounds derived from natural plants with minimal side effects and neuroprotective effects have therefore become a research hotspot. Ampelopsis grossedentata is rich in a variety of active substances such as flavonoids. Its main ingredients include dihydromyricetin, myricetin, and myricitrin, among others, which have been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective abilities. Recent studies have shown that the flavonoids have broad application prospects in the prevention and treatment of AD; however, the associated mechanisms are relatively complex. This review explores the mechanisms of flavonoids derived from A. grossedentata focusing on their effects against amyloid β protein deposition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, aiming to provide a theoretical support for its development and extensive application in the field of functional food and health products.