为探明茶树鲜叶色泽与鲜叶生化成分之间的关系, 探索茶树品种红茶的适制性。以白叶1号、紫娟、黄金菊、福鼎大白茶4个茶树品种为材料, 观察各品种茶树芽叶性状, 测定其鲜叶生化成分含量, 分析不同色素含量与生化成分含量间的相关性, 并制成红茶进行审评检验。结果显示,叶绿素a含量最高的为紫娟(1.21 mg/g), 花青素含量最高的为紫娟(8.86 mg/g), 分别为白叶1号、黄金菊和福鼎大白茶的29.53、6.47和4.32倍, 各处理间生化成分含量差异显著。相关性分析表明, 色素含量与氨基酸含量呈显著负相关, 与水浸出物、茶多酚和咖啡碱含量呈显著正相关; 对茶树鲜叶色素含量、生化成分含量进行主成分分析发现, 代表“色素因子”、“生化因子”、“滋味因子”前3个主成分累计贡献率为96.90%, 可以很好地分析不同颜色(品种)鲜叶制成的红茶质量, 鲜叶品质得分从高到低依次为紫鹃(T2)>黄金菊(T3)>福鼎大白茶(T4)>白叶1号(T1), 与制成的红茶感官审评结果一致。紫鹃茶树品种具有高绿叶素a、叶绿叶素b、类胡萝卜素、花青素含量及高酚氨比, 更适合制作红茶, 也说明适制红茶品种能通过鲜叶的色素含量、生化成分含量的高低来判断。
To explore the relationship between the color of fresh tea leaves and the content of biochemical components in new shoots, and explore the black tea suitability of tea varieties. Four tea varieties, namely Baiye No.1, Zijuan, Huangjinju and Fuding Dabai tea, were used as materials, the characteristics of tea buds and leaves were observed, the content of biochemical components in new shoots was determined, the correlation between different pigment content and the content of biochemical components was analyzed, and black tea was prepared for examination and verification. The highest content of chlorophyll a was Zijuan (1.21 mg/g), the highest content of anthocyanin was Zijuan (8.86 mg/g), the lowest was Baiye1 (0.03 mg/g), which were 29.53, 6.47 and 4.32 times of 29.53, 6.47, and 4.32 times of Baiye No.1, Huangjinju and Fuding Dabai tea, respectively. Correlation analysis shows that the content of pigments was negatively correlated with the content of amino acids, and positively correlated with the content of water extract, tea polyphenols and caffeine. According to the principal component analysis of pigment content and biochemical component content of new shoots, the cumulative contribution rate of the first 3 principal components representing “color factor”, “Biochemical factor factor” and “taste factor” was 96.90%, which could well analyze the quality of black tea made from new shoots of different colors (varieties). The quality scores of fresh leaves from high to low were Zijuan>Huangjinju>Fuding Dabai tea>Baiye NO.1, which was consistent with the sensory evaluation results of prepared black tea. Zijuan with high chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, anthocyanins, high phenol-ammonia ratio was more suitable for making black tea, which also indicates that suitable black tea varieties can be judged by the pigment content and biochemical component content of fresh leaves, which can provide references for the production practice of black tea in Jiangxi Province.