Abstract: In order to study the fruit quality characteristics of different varieties of phyllanthus emblica L., a total of 8 varieties of phyllanthus emblica L. were selected from Guangdong and Guangxi province, and 31 indexes such as their shape characteristics, active substances and nutritional components were determined. The varieties with good nutritional quality and processing characteristics were selected by principal component analysis. The results showed that the fruit weight, total sugar, total acid, total flavone, total phenol, ascorbic acid, organic acid and monomer phenol contents of different varieties of phyllanthus emblica L. fruit were significantly different, but the juice extraction rate and edible rate were little different. Six factors with characteristic values greater than 1 were extracted by principal component analysis, and the cumulative contribution rate reached 96.95%. The first principal component was affected by total acid, total phenol, malic acid and lactic acid; the second principal component was affected by single fruit weight, longitudinal diameter, transverse diameter and pulp weight; the third principal component was affected by tartaric acid, citric acid, claritin acid. The cumulative contribution rate of the first three principal components was 75.84%. From the comprehensive consideration of 6 factors, "Zhi Sheng Miao" and "Ping Dan 1" varieties are suitable for the extraction of active substances, "Ling Shan 4", "Bing Tian" and "Bo Li" varieties are suitable for processing into juice. The results of this study provided a reference for selecting varieties suitable for fruit juice processing and extraction of active substances.