The germination stage of coarse grain seeds involves a variety of complex material transformation, which has unique physiological effects, the content of some nutrients and functional factors will gradually increase under the action of multiple complex enzymes, while the content of antinutritional factors will gradually decrease. Therefore, the physiological benefits of sprouted cereals have attracted extensive attention. The techniques of inducing the germination of coarse cereals by microwave, ultrasound and high-voltage pulsed electric field were reviewed. This paper mainly introduced sprouted mung beans, black beans, red beans, buckwheat, millet and other cereals, summarized the change trend of polyphenols, flavonoids, GABA, protein and other nutrients after germination, and phytic acid, tannin and other anti nutritional factors, and analyzed the functional effects of sprouted cereals on diabetes, high blood fat, hypertension, antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. As the main and auxiliary materials, germinated grain seeds have also made some research achievements in the development of relevant functional foods. However, the change mechanism of active ingredients and its impact on food processing need to be further studied. Therefore, after proper germination, the physiological active ingredients of cereals will change in a beneficial direction, which is expected to be a functional dietary supplement with multiple health benefits and medicinal values of germination foods.