Color is a major apparent attribute of fruit and vegetable, which is highly related to the natural pigments contained in fruits and vegetables, and is one of the important indicators to judge whether the quality changes. Thermal and non-thermal processing technologies are widely used in the processing of fruit and vegetable products. Traditional processing technology of fruit and vegetable are mainly thermal processing consist of thermal peeling, blanching, lye peeling, drying, frying and other thermal processing technologies. The high temperature used in processing is easy to cause irreversible influence on the color and quality of fruit and vegetable. Non-thermal processing technologies such as enzymatic peeling, infrared treatment, ultrasonic wave, pulsed electric field, high pressure treatment and cold plasma have played a positive role in maintaining the color of fruit and vegetable processing. However, there are fewer discussions and comparative studies on the effects of the two processing technologies on the color of processed fruits and vegetables, and it is of great significance to clarify the principle of each method, the conditions of use, the process parameters, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method for the processing of high-quality fruit and vegetable products. This paper outlines the structural characteristics as well as the physicochemical properties of each pigment, summarizes and compares the key technical points of thermal and non-thermal processing technologies and their effects on the color stability of fruits and vegetables. And finally puts forward some suggestions on the key principle exploration for the challenges of fruit and vegetable processing, providing references for the potential application of thermal and non-thermal processing technology in color preservation of fruits and vegetables.