该研究探讨了稻米油对金黄地鼠胆固醇代谢的改善作用。以金黄地鼠为实验对象，研究分别摄入猪油和稻米油对金黄地鼠肝脏中胆固醇代谢的影响，旨在为居民选用食用油提供科学的理论依据。实验选取30只叙利亚金黄地鼠，随机分为2组，分别饲喂15wt%脂肪供能猪油（Lard Oil，LD）和15wt%脂肪供能稻米油（Rice Oil，RD）。每周计算体质量、采食量，饲喂12周后解剖，分离血清后检测生化指标，并取主动脉和肝脏进行HE染色。用RT-qPCR检测肝脏组织中CYP27A1、LDLr、SR-BI、SLC27A5、sulfotransferase 2A1、和AQP8的mRNA表达水平。结果表明：与猪油组相比，稻米油组金黄地鼠血清中LDL-c浓度和肝脏中的TC浓度分别降低了46.78%和41.73%；稻米油能改善肝脏病理形态，降低肝脏的损伤，同时上调金黄地鼠肝脏组织中LDLr、SR-BI、CYP27A1、SLC27A5、sulfotransferase 2A1、AQP8等基因表达，其中LDLr、CYP27A1和AQP8的表达水平上升到2.04倍、2.14倍和2.83倍；这些基因与胆固醇和胆汁酸代谢相关，其表达升高可以降低机体的胆固醇和胆汁酸。结论：与食用猪油比较，稻米油能改善金黄地鼠血脂浓度、减少肝脏的损伤，抑制高胆固醇；稻米油降胆固醇的作用机制在于其能调控肝脏组织中胆固醇和胆汁酸代谢相关基因的表达。
In this study, the ameliorating effect of rice oil on the cholesterol metabolism of golden hamster was investigated. Taking golden hamsters as the experimental objects, the effects of lard and rice oil on the cholesterol metabolism in the livers of golden hamsters were examined, n order to provide a scientific theoretical basis for residents to choose edible oils. Thirty Syrian golden hamsters were selected and randomly divided into two groups, which were fed 15% fat in form of lard oil (LD) and rice oil (RD), respectively. The body weight and feed intake were calculated every week. After 12 weeks of feeding, the animals were dissected and the sera were separated for determining the biochemical indexes. The aorta and liver were taken for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. RT-qPCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of CYP27A1, LDLrDLr, SR-BI, SLC27A5, sulfotransferase 2A1 and AQP8 in the liver tissues. The results showed that compared with the lard group, the LDL-C level in the serum and the TC content in the liver of golden hamsters of the rice oil group decreased by 46.78% and 41.73%, respectively. Rice oil could improve the pathological morphology of the liver, reduced liver injury, while up-regulating the expressions of LDLr, SR-BI, CYP27A1, SLC27A5, Sulfotransferase 2A1, AQP8 and other genes in the liver tissues of the golden hamsters. The expression levels of LDLr, CYP27A1 and AQP8 increased to 2.04, 2.14 and 2.83 times, respectively. These genes are associated with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and their increased expressions can reduce the body’s cholesterol and bile acids. Conclusion: Compared with edible lard, rice oil can improve blood lipid level, reduce liver damage and inhibit high cholesterol in golden hamsters. The cholesterol-lowering mechanism of rice oil is that it can regulate the expressions of genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism in the liver tissues.